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Alpine ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to climate change. For widely distributed alpine specialists, rear-edge populations are disproportionately important; it is expected that climate change will reduce their occupancy ranges due to the loss of suitable habitats and connectivity among them. …

Aim: Future climate changes may affect species distribution and their genetic diversity, hampering species adaptation to a new climate or tracking the suitable conditions. Amphibians have high sensitivity to environmental degradation and changes in temperature and humidity. Thus, the expected climat…

The latitudinal gradient of increasing marine biodiversity from the poles to the tropics is one of the most conspicuous biological patterns in modern oceans.1, 2, 3 Low-latitude regions of the global ocean are often hotspots of animal biodiversity, yet they are set to be most critically affected b…

In this article, I revise the taxonomy of the species and subspecies of the genus Phrynosoma through phylogenetic and species delimitation approaches based on four mtDNA markers (ND1, ND2, ND4, and 12S). The resulting taxonomy recognizes 12 species (P. asio, P. bracconieri, P. cornutum, P. coronatum…

Aim: Recent breakthroughs in environmental niche models (ENMs) have substantially improved our insights in niche evolution. Assuming that closely related taxa have similar niches (i.e. niche conservatism), the combination of ENMs with phylogenetic information allows the reconstruction of ancestral n…

Despite growing evidence that niche shifts are more common in flowering plants than previously thought, little is known whether such shifts are promoted by changes in photosynthetic pathways. Here we combine the most complete phylogeny for epiphytic Malagasy Bulbophyllum orchids (c. 210 spp.) with c…

The climatic and geological changes that occurred during the Quaternary, particularly the fluctuations during the glacial and interglacial periods of the Pleistocene, shaped the population demography and geographic distribution of many species. These processes have been studied in several groups of …

How coniferous forests evolved in the Northern Hemisphere remains largely unknown. Unlike most groups of organisms that generally follow a latitudinal diversity gradient, most conifer species in the Northern Hemisphere are distributed in mountainous areas at middle latitudes. It is of great interest…

Aim: Correlative species distribution models (SDMs) are among the most frequently used tools for conservation planning under climate and land use changes. Conservation-focused climate change studies are often conducted on a national or local level and can use different sources of occurrence records …

Summary Climate change presents a particularly complex challenge in the context of flyway scale conservation of migratory bird species as it requires coordinated action by multiple countries along these species’ migratory routes. Coordinating conservation responses requires understanding the vulnera…